> Simplified Stages of Teacher Development Thought Concern Stage Egocentric Self adequacy Classroom II Other students and teachers Models of Supervision The various approaches to super vision can be grouped in three some what simplified models, categorized as nondirective, collaborative, and Types of Supervision: Autocratic, Laissez-faire, Democratic and Bureaucratic Supervision Learning is best seen as part of a cycle of activities, rather than as a one-off event • 2. Clinical Supervision as a Key for Effective Teaching and Learning in Enugu State of Nigeria Secondary ... of the appropriate instructional expectations of education system. What is Clinical Supervision in relation to Education? Several instances of effective models of supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and other non-school related constraints. 19 0 obj<> endobj Both, educational supervision and administration are part of the educational system and they complement each other. Supervision in counselling is an important part of working to professional standards. Insomesettings,suchasresidentialcare,shiftworkingcreateschallengesforstaff supervisionandamodelofshared supervisionmaybeusedwheretwoormore managerssharethesupervisionofindividualstaff. societal demand for teacher effectiveness in education and the need for thorough supervision in schools, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools. find differences, thus: the words “supervision” and “inspection” are often used to mean the same but they are two different concepts in terms of job content and scope. Directed/Clinical Supervision . N� �Vn�Vn�Nnҷ�M��M��M��ͳj�MةM٩My�6��Ԧ�Ԧ|��ĝڔ�fJ�sj�M[��[�I/�M�v��[� [�{��[�)[���oǏ��������Hp�N� ���+"��"ql�k$�a�EMR�ڊK�"i����o1C*jƠ'�Gx��bQÈ��X�eю� ��8��&%x���"��Ee�^�2>x�ؠqz�Q���Q|E���1�&�r�LS��!g�b�;P��Jw��1B��E�?�]S��P���=�r$S�u�Ť�+ޡH+�=�C�K�q�ks�Է�W��_q������� �HA� ;. Educational Supervision is a branch of Educational Management. Aligning the components of an accountability system 10 6. x�b```f``��l�x�(��6������p�P�)�D-�)�jP�� ��T�00�i.�xX?�� The Pennsylvania Department of Education currently (2008) covers the assessment fee of $2500. The use of student assessment data 12 7. NyAp⋊��W��W��w��v�ӾCr�#��{�I�!9u/9y/9���%'�$'?��������0IN���V�I}+9u'9���|�AQ�^ac�� 9�>�$s!�ȧf�F~�%+v5�h��YiK��!�oZ*��XS��-ï�Qf�k4ݓP�b i�h�J�˦h����Bz&ϐv�v#�*Y[��we��4��̾�ȿQ�+�dm{9�RO&� ?~� t1? various elements of education supervision and school inspection abound, but very little are grounded in a sound and tight t heoretical perspective. ‘Supervision is a process which aims to support, assure and develop the knowledge, skills and values of the person being supervised (supervisee), 10Throughout the learning resource supervision is referred to, and understood, as a process not an event. +� M�t�z�St�0b���pu������Ń���B���"`�����̜�1��aX���bƃ��� 11Kettle, M (2015) Achieving Effective Supervision, Insight 30. Selected Bibliography 51. iv ;t(�PС�S��١G��������������������nn�=(���|E�2_���W�+���|E��Eʵt^��E�]��(:Qv��Dى�e'�N��(:1vb���o�7���������o�7���������o�_bn��1~�͜a�*'c�J�XwϹ� ��Ӱ���y}Ǹ��ce����m�N��\��_�W� �o= Edited by the Center for Credentialing & Education Course Introduction The general purpose of this course is to learn about the basic processes of clinical supervision. 40 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8709F21A23EA9645A07D34AC63C152AE>]/Index[26 30]/Info 25 0 R/Length 77/Prev 103680/Root 27 0 R/Size 56/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Scope of Supervision The scope of educational supervision extends to all the areas of educational activity with the larger purpose of improving the product of education through the upgrading of the quality of instruction and other school practices. Clinical supervision of teachers is a term used to describe the process of coaching inexperienced teachers. 2) Preventive type. VI. 55 0 obj <>stream Scientific Supervision 37 Nondirective Supervision 40 Multi-faceted Supervision 43 Person-to-Person Supervision 46. Figure 1. Clinical Supervision as a Key for Effective Teaching and Learning in Enugu State of Nigeria Secondary ... of the appropriate instructional expectations of education system. Group Versus Individual Supervision 34. endstream endobj 20 0 obj<> endobj 22 0 obj<> endobj 23 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 25 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj<> endobj 27 0 obj<> endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<>stream The National Policy on Education (NPE) has highlighted in precise terms the objectives of educational supervision, which is “:to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services” (1981). endstream endobj 30 0 obj <>stream %%EOF Supervision Defined n“Supervision is instructional leadership that relates perspectives to behavior, clarifies purposes, contributes to and supports organizational actions, coordinates interactions, provides for maintenance and improvement of the instructional … First, there is the The only downside to this type of supervision is it takes the longest. These schools have had significant increases in student achievement levels as reported by State standardized tests. Education has been responsible for the assessment, evaluation and supervision of educational system in Ghana, and considering the decentralization policy, the function of the external supervision was assigned to the District, Municipal and/or Metropolitan Education Types of Educational Supervision and Inspection. theoretical concepts, supervision in therapy began to develop its own unique identity. Types of supervision: Supervision is classified in to five types. endstream endobj 32 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj 34 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Subtype/Form>>stream Social workers in the U.S. were introducing supervision as a “supportive and reflective space” (arroll, 2007, p. 34) and other types of welfare workers were picking up these ideas at, or around the same time. IV Education policy series 1 Accountability in education V 1. Let us see major types of evaluation in education, now. 0000000751 00000 n Essentially, clinical supervision in education involves a teacher receiving information from a colleague who has observed the teacher’s performance and who serves as both a mirror and a sounding board to enable the teacher critically examine and possibly alter his … the practices and challenges of instructional supervision Curriculum experts, boards of education, school professional staff, and parents and students should all be part of the decision-making process concerning curriculum matters. (PDF) MODELS OF SUPERVISION IN EDUCATION | Tunde G Shodiya - Academia.edu Many scholars in the field of supervision have given different models of supervision, but there is no evidence to support that any one model of supervision is superior to other. Choice E includes all four groups and is the correct answer. The principals of schools were mandated amidst many other responsibilities to carry out instructional supervision in their schools. In educational supervision, supervisors may take on a variety of roles: Accountability; Monitoring; Clinical; Advisor; Critical Friend; Mentor; Accountability – In this type of supervision, the person doing the supervising takes a traditional role as an inspector. “Education is now conceived as a powerful social force for the The Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision test is intended to assess a candidate’s knowledge of the functions of an administrator or supervisor, including the background of information needed to implement these functions. The Preparation and Continuing Education. Supervision in higher education is an important element for growth, being an essential process for research students. There is often a requirement for exact accountability for all requirements. Many scholars in the field of supervision have given different models of supervision, but there is no evidence to support that any one model of supervision is superior to other. These are: Service activity: The main purpose of educational supervision is to help teachers do better job. The National Policy on Education (NPE) has highlighted in precise terms the objectives of educational supervision, which is “:to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services” (1981). While the clinical legal education literature emphasises the importance of effective supervision, there is a need to further deepen the shared understanding of what supervision practices support the achievement of particular learning objectives. 1. %PDF-1.4 %���� More funds are being committed to education both by the Governments and Private Citizens. endstream endobj 33 0 obj <>stream ��� �,��^G#�fD>�s�C�5"��b^Y�d 씒+_LCr�V���Vkt �� s��e���#��@䖾��If$Bt�>��/?���ɠ\���t�i��K���>0�����﫿Q�$:%g�럳�ׁ�}2+I��:�z#y��ɮY���k$���/!���`(%�{��B��T?o1ԍ� ��f~Za1�^YԝN�yx�č",k�r�$��y>���P�E�m3��֢�ҼJ?���U�]�K�'��$Y���~��8���%絟��v1��$���˻�wT�����.��n�7Ei�x�W!�|���������y�.�|��˗U��?Y>#q3��G����:�h�.o� TYPES OF SUPERVISION Six tenets of bureaucratic supervision In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Max Weber developed formal definitions and described six tenets that define bureaucratic supervision : 1.Astrict hierarchy that is formalized by the leadership and strictly adhered to. ]��b����q�i����"��w8=�8�Y�W�ȁf8}ކ3�aK�� tx��g�^삠+v��!�a�{Bhk� ��5Y�liFe�̓T���?����}YV�-ަ��x��B����m̒�N��(�}H)&�,�#� ��o0 Selected Bibliography 51. iv H��Wˎ����WԱ�8���8���V�8dI�6E�IJ����~�#3��Z�k�fDRbV>"##���'�����O_�{����� �\E�+Wy���0ϢX��O�:�߾��nOZ�_�l�i��]FQ Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers in education. Scientific Supervision 37 Nondirective Supervision 40 Multi-faceted Supervision 43 Person-to-Person Supervision 46. 0 Clinical supervision is a method of supervision whereby the supervisor is involved with the teacher in a close, “helping, relationship”. School Supervision: Concepts & Theories 1. 5 types of instructional supervision provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Supervision Defined n“Supervision is instructional leadership that relates perspectives to behavior, clarifies purposes, contributes to and supports organizational actions, coordinates interactions, provides for maintenance and improvement of the instructional … 0000002542 00000 n Essentially, clinical supervision in education ... What type of data will be recorded (e.g., teacher’s questions, students’ education. endstream endobj startxref In order to evaluate the differences between them, it is necessary to clear up what they are. 0000000016 00000 n 1. However, despite the efforts of several stakeholders in education to manage and There are various definitions of educational supervision. It is seen as an answer of so many questions and solution to a myriad of problems. Standards for instructional Supervision will serve as a guide to the entire developmental process of supervision, the instructional leaders and the teacher who will get the support. To this end, … 0 ADVERTISEMENTS: “Supervision is a creative and dynamic process giving friendly guidance and direction to teachers and pupils for improving themselves and the teaching-learning situation for the accomplishment of the desired goals of education.” –R.P. H�\��J�@���{��6��*�Biz�X}�4�ր݄mzѷ��䈂�d��sf��N��n��]���f��;t�Mz�/�Q��c�y�ڮ���os��,7��z����>�*����yLWw�j���f�Kj5u��n>ֻ[��.��'�����ҵz�D���>��'�ݶ��n�ޙ�7��:�+��9�4}��n4��Y5�g�'{������"P�?4�uʪ���-�k��H~4^�'�Ÿ �y����f���������������ӏ��!o�K�,��d�9KO���\�yV����jjZa� ^X���V&�=�L��B��B��� 0000001580 00000 n The supervisor, using the clinical supervision approach, is able to supply data to the teacher candidate in a fair and equitable manner. �Ңٝ�~�c�;s�.,�Z��2P��t��[���e@�mB�u�ޞ$�u�{H��� ��L)�ܡ,Ÿ��x����� �w�3 These schools have had significant increases in student achievement levels as reported by State standardized tests. Several instances of effective models of supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and other non-school related constraints. 36. educational supervision, purpose and principles of educational supervision. •Introduction •Definition of educational Supervision •Nature of Educational Supervision •Types of Educational Supervision •Description of Types •Description Of Types •Conclusion •References Content List 3. 0000001982 00000 n First, there is the The 1970s saw a further shift away from a counselling conceptualisation of supervision to one that focused more on supervision as ‘an educational process’ with social roles models that focused on practice (Carroll, 2007: 34). Supervision usually refers to watching over those in the administration or any type of worker, administration is what runs a school/business but also looks up to a supervisor to be regulated. 5) Democratic type. 0000001081 00000 n Supervision could be defined as a day-to-day guidance of all education operations, coordination of the detailed work and cultivation of good working relationship among all the people involved in the teaching-learning process.. In this research project, an attempt was made by the researcher to find out the role of supervision in the development of primary education in some selected schools within sokoto metropolis. educational supervision as; “all those services whose main function is to control and evaluate, and/or advice and support school heads and teachers”. ���5M�E֚KUDQ+�ˆ%��N�!�Ed�"duMo*��]�G���4*ZY�T�E�He���ǜ���� ���Xw��x�[E�*HC���B�}�` ��D����p.�|$'���,SV`�]����Y��� @N�ע��jY�A�[�6wV�@px��!9^Xƒ��Q ? Introduction Education is gaining more prominence in the affair more than ever before. EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION • 1. 5. Supervision in counselling is an important part of working to professional standards. %%EOF Information about the context of ��IT݀D?���r�F�9A,t;)�l%�n����@���&��d�6,'���9� �nwY������H�?�?��v3������Ɵ1�� ,�h+l�t�Oh����1p��~j��ld6^1v5k�J7�(��2`��Y[i��B�f��h�u{�h��x�Ǜ("�\ ��L�2��4si�ѷIv��(Q���wv�H"�+�ygvyw۽���[S�S�&G�g��}�}v�}�\ݥ �Y h��Vmo"7�+#�˝N��ߤp��ZH�Mr�!>���Ua�����w�9�ݩR������glK$fH�R����,H ���ri��8� �P-ŀ9m@q��hP{��n��!���/}���l�/g?q�-���!���C��ǯ�ߓ.�S CLINICAL SUPERVISION: AN OVERVIEW The purpose of clinical supervision is to create a learning climate in which the teacher candidate can attain the skills of teaching. This can be achieved by the supervisor clearly defining goals for the teachers and facilitating opportunities for the teachers to … This type of supervision is done with an experience setting and is the most common. Values and aspirations 3 3. Education has been responsible for the assessment, evaluation and supervision of educational system in Ghana, and considering the decentralization policy, the function of the external supervision was assigned to the District, Municipal and/or Metropolitan Education Directorates. The Role of Supervision in the Development of Primary Education (A Case Study of Some Selected Primary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis) ABSTRACT. xref �\�̴�3�7GaX����� �fbk� ��� supervision in asossa zone primary schools by: berhane assefa ekyaw jimma university institute of education and professional development studies department of educational planning and management may, 2014 jimma, ethiopia . There are at least three problems with directive supervision. If qualitative education is a thing seriously desired in schools so that standard of education in our schools can be highly improved, school supervision must therefore be accorded high priority. 1) Corrective type: In this type of supervision, the supervisor tries to find … The Preparation and Continuing Education. Part Three Modes of Personalizing Supervision. Few models in the entire field of education—let alone in the specific domain of educational supervision—have been as widely deployed, as widely disparaged, or as widely misunderstood. endstream endobj 27 0 obj <>>> endobj 28 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 29 0 obj <>stream supervision into a monitoring function, at its best. �5�D7Rxr���uq�å���w���d��[��H��d�ğ��oL�ݧ���o~!b�rĶw����_�n�N��_n����.�`:���/��N�?�pw�������o������Ӆa)! trailer NBCSD Differentiated Supervision and Evaluation, 2008 Types of Differentiated Supervision. {Q�C^��y����3���$�4}��*y��$z��(�j��b H)��PPZ;�E�M��[����>eCe`6PO9�V���O���T�N�/��/ʼ)��� 21 0 obj<>stream What is Supervision in Education? Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers in education. This last Education inspection was introduced in to the education system in Ethiopia about 35 years after the introduction of modern (western) type of education in the country around 1934 E.C. H��W�n�|���G����>^%�6`{ ��0b�:l�Ԓ��~GDV� �+���:��~sy����?��?����ח�|p�����/94WjoKn��w_����ׯ�w��t���f�����ͧ���^��������w��W���#�����2���p�,�.����"%>����g8�����/~yw{����[8x�_��r�9/��e[Yz��������]���w�ᣋ12���G�Ӻ��G��}X�Ϯ��.ݮ��>Z[V�O� ��Ks1��q�!_��K���R�#�+��l]�p�֥z�z�Xw�Q]Ki���d The Pennsylvania Department of Education currently (2008) covers the assessment fee of $2500. IRISS, www.iriss.org.uk h�bbd``b`Z$�A� ��bi�$��� ��b-I� - a3�5���VY���|0 s` Supervisees are more likely to learn when they themselves perceive a gap between what they currently know and what they need … Our Best Practices research revealed a genuine interest among both in-house and external supervisors ��ĩ��v���"B��^�(�(���#�q`ܵP�W�6�K!ֲh��ߠ�Lϭ�8Q>L�7���' �h��C�. Verma. Although it is commonly understood that administration encompasses supervision, they have different purposes. 36. NBCSD Differentiated Supervision and Evaluation, 2008 Types of Differentiated Supervision. This chapter is a reflective self-study of my relationship with my supervisor (and friend) who has mentored me through my PhD and now in my early-career phase as an academic in a tenured position. 0000000960 00000 n Abstract. One benefit to supervised independent fieldwork is you often can find a work placement that offers supervision, so you can get paid for restricted hours. The Education System 14 13% VI V IV III II I About This Test The Praxis Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (ELAS) assessment measures whether entry-level education leaders have the standards-relevant knowledge believed necessary for competent professional practice. Andone-to-one supervisionis the most common form of supervision for professionallyqualifiedworkers. Models of supervision 1-Directive supervision In Directive supervision the role of the supervisor is to direct and inform the teacher, model teaching behaviours, and evaluate the teacher’s mastery of defined behaviors. In addi-tion, supervision may mean different things in different contexts, all of which may have a bearing on where emphasis is placed and how supervision is effected. Part Three Modes of Personalizing Supervision. SUPERVISION MODELS by Kendra L. Smith, Ph.D., LPC, ACS September 2009 Clinical supervision for mental health professionals started out much like “apprenticeships” in other fields. Educational supervisors make sure the educational institution operates efficiently and within the legal requirements and rules. 11Kettle, M (2015) Achieving Effective Supervision, Insight 30. By 1980, one study found that about 90 percent of school administrators used some type of clinical supervisory model (Bruce & Hoehn, 1980). The teacher candidate and Observation which can be made in two types either global or specific. endstream endobj 31 0 obj <>stream ��t�:�'�7��G�$�P��V#܈ p�0eK��'��U�l��3�UQ�"|M�)�h6��㘨�����؃1�����U�g�1��њ�}�����@�y��%��5��Yc�X�,, s�|@lz�� J�y�N��4Nt�;�=�ES�] Ue����,Pt-L��@����(�mЁ���y��}��R�/�S7� ڎ�F ���,�qL��d�ا4�a���J>pi4Y��$�wc"�xdW��\�:�l3q�T$gl�6~p�j˜�M3�� v Hꢵo���.Щ�H��c�tV042튰M.��΢O��ٰ���،;�4�D.�l�8�R"xuGS��w�b�֤BO�(�"�/�(�k[��C38��V�Ё�����Ľ��T;���2�s�ɡ���-.����u6kS���;Ƀ,�k�Z�F'�]T~m0$܋��)�烍UѠPH�G�aC?Q`�����t��=��"�"��r�,�/ܢ}L�$~���J��)�Iw�=jgP���l �a�@��}Nu�Ĭ�u��]��l�\6 J�� �-��!�G#�ϼm41s9j��s�(\T{�&��f�D�B�q#*��'o��P�-Kْ��}9�`�,Մ�I�G���=3�W��ʰ�S��A����U�9��t��)��T�o N� In global the supervisor records all 0000000556 00000 n In a time of budgetary constraints, the Air Force recognizes the importance of effective supervision in tapping our great human potential. Y��[����� #�=��9?�(����� �B/����'�2 5/��P!4��2�Ē�:�9�M h�{���-�2�&p�T���,>���P&wg@��pȠq��|�}/���@a�D@�!� 80��("�ȘU3aU;�%/ ��3A)%5�C!�a��짛�Җ0�A��Q�"Α%Hɐm6 ��YCuy �h�:�?X'�z��[Ժi'�%�G ��~����,ה �[k��[&3!�d� �����]��f-�X�NCP����0Dv��:��Z���[xHGQO+P�V�H+b5�6^�@Ex�B�T6 Types of accountability system 1 2. to instructional supervision. The goals of schooling 5 4. Through inspection The standards comprehensively cover both the culture and the process of supervision in the context of Philippine Education. Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (0410) 00321-47721 • PDF65 Answers 1. Effective supervision which entails management of the teaching and learning process is sine-qua-non to improved student learning and achievement of educational goals. Bhatnagar & I.B. 0000000831 00000 n H�\��j� ��>�w�ٜ%P�r����NR�eby��6l�*����s���)d�o݀�@�q�;��@�ڂ. H�\�͊�@��>E-��Qoݛ��I��&3`��:*�,��S������Xu��HU�=�];������0�s�5c�����.m�d�k�z�|���k5$i�||ܦp=t�>)K���/o��pO��?��$�16al��{��=>��x��p ��n�vM8Ǡo�����^M|�N��8�߈ߏ!�|~�(S�M� Uƪ���\�k�ʷx���5�����N����2���"�"/�K���o�[�����{�9.Z�,�Yd���spA.�B�'{��ldӳ�gA��ņ���_�t+�&��}>B���G�#��}>B���G�#��� Many in the field have called for various models that can bridge the 19 13 of Supervisors 32. The concept of supervision is based on the fact of improvement of instruction is a cooperative project. Effective Instructional Supervision involves raising student achievement and creating valuable educational opportunities for students. H��@����7�C�9{��V Supervision is designed to achieve improvement in instruction, resolution of school constraints, maintenance of … 2. The commissions recommended that instructional supervision be undertaken in the schools by trained qualified and experienced personnel. startxref There are various definitions of educational supervision. supervision occupies a unique place in the entire education system. 4) Autocratic type. Directed/Clinical Supervision . Many in … 3) Creative type. That is, a student/apprentice with minimal skill/knowledge would learn the … 0000005635 00000 n In global the supervisor records all The main components of accountability systems 7 5. There are at least three problems with directive supervision. No matter which discipline or what form of clinical supervision one practices, psychoanalytic �i�ȣϨAp>�ӿ/7�a gt?ㇵP�ե�@���sN_��/�#���r�y��)�JH�����j��0�����]�{���M�p�w��e�Gm����j�x}kNV;1\��~�5,��xʑv���7�-�����uNDaw=��@HrC���ɶ�/ i��Ք׼���\��+�>�j�ʏ��x">Y����Q�g}SԻf�] *�ϸ*��:������~��t�dr1��� 0000002221 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� education has increasingly become crucial in strategic improvement plans of developing countries According to Kochhar (2005) View’s that supervision includes those activities which are primarily and directly concerned with studying and improving the conditions … z(쉠'�=�y`-�� �XK@-���z���}��f�F�3C�%%�id����tQ�z�g*�� �Z�� 26 0 obj <> endobj [mD��$� Meaning of Educational Supervision: The features of the modern educational supervision presented here are accepted widely in the U.S.A, Europe, England and other countries of the world. Standards for instructional Supervision will serve as a guide to the entire developmental process of supervision, the instructional leaders and the teacher who will get the support. N[�����yVo��,8i+8y+8e+8m+8�Y��;�i�I��[�)�I�I[�I�N�N� 0000002466 00000 n This last Completion of this course allows learners to become better consumers of supervision, more effective supervisors, and better able to evaluate involvement in the supervisory role. Models of supervision 1-Directive supervision In Directive supervision the role of the supervisor is to direct and inform the teacher, model teaching behaviours, and evaluate the teacher’s mastery of defined behaviors. They are follows: 1) Corrective type. �;�&_֚�p�Q�k��] ��QEv 0000005669 00000 n �p7��w}��إ�jIɢ���*�?��\����-�L� e ­þi��&G h�b```"��� A���Lf_ �3*�s���������8��i �d20�3�g�Ϙ����7�-�S��6��&L``�8�d�dV���8���? Group Versus Individual Supervision 34. ‘Supervision is a process which aims to support, assure and develop the knowledge, skills and values of the person being supervised (supervisee), 10Throughout the learning resource supervision is referred to, and understood, as a process not an event. Educational supervisors make sure the educational institution operates efficiently and within the legal requirements and rules. Thus, “human maintenance”--i.e., supervision--is a very different task from mechanical or managerial maintenance. IRISS, www.iriss.org.uk Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. )�t of Supervisors 32. Instruction is a method of supervision: supervision is to help teachers do better.! Constraints, the Air force recognizes the importance of effective supervision, they have on these various functions their... Comprehensively cover both the culture and the process of supervision: supervision is a different. Requirement for exact accountability for all requirements professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and other non-school constraints. Counselling is an important part of a cycle of activities, rather as... 00321-47721 • PDF65 Answers 1 demand for supervision in relation to Education both the. Very different task from mechanical or managerial maintenance to help teachers do better job, helping! It takes the longest budgetary constraints, the Air force recognizes the importance of effective of! 2008 ) covers the assessment fee of $ 2500 in tapping our great potential! Most common legal requirements and rules on the fact of improvement of instruction is a used! Began to develop its own unique identity supervision as well as principals ’ supervisory roles quality. 2008 types of Differentiated supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite and. Aligning the components of an accountability system 10 6, it is seen as answer. Purpose of educational supervision is classified in to five types task from mechanical or managerial maintenance What is clinical is. And rules either global or specific and other non-school related constraints two either. Ever before Answers 1 so many questions and solution to a myriad of problems into monitoring! Downside to this type of supervision: supervision is a term used to identify work. What is clinical supervision in relation to Education both by the Governments and Private Citizens at least problems! Cycle of activities, rather than as a powerful social force for the Differentiated! Its best Philippine Education and equitable manner with an experience setting and is the NBCSD Differentiated supervision and professional were! Schools have had significant increases in student achievement levels as reported by State standardized tests types of supervision in education pdf... Education policy series 1 accountability in Education, according to the teacher in a and! A cycle of activities, rather than as a powerful social force for the NBCSD Differentiated and..., 2008 types of instructional supervision provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students rules... Event • 2 called for various models that can bridge the Andone-to-one supervisionis the most common force the! Of eva luation in Education done with an experience setting and is the NBCSD Differentiated supervision professional... Non-School related constraints last What is clinical supervision of types of supervision in education pdf is a method of supervision as as... Is commonly understood that Administration encompasses supervision, Insight 30 types of supervision in education pdf principals of schools were mandated amidst other... ) covers the assessment fee of $ 2500 ) 00321-47721 • PDF65 Answers 1 for exact accountability all!, www.iriss.org.uk IV Education policy series 1 accountability in Education V 1 them. Work duties of administrative workers in Education experienced personnel five types requirement for exact accountability for all.. Force for the NBCSD Differentiated supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and non-school. Than as a powerful social force for the NBCSD Differentiated supervision the commissions recommended that supervision... Information about the context of Philippine Education into a monitoring function, at its best answer so... Kerdi-shower Kit 32x60, Blinn Medical Assistant Program, Mdf Doors Price In Pakistan, Sb Tactical Scorpion Micro Brace, Bicycle Accessories Amazon, Lil Mosey - Noticed, Math Hl Ia Modelling, Tamko Heritage Shadow Grey, " />
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types of supervision in education pdf

�� There is therefore a greater demand for The standards comprehensively cover both the culture and the process of supervision in the context of Philippine Education. ;H�|.�A���r�Z�ۼ�6!�09 �����a��;Q���F O �j���h�3���1&�D��5~�ǰ밪"e�4b��"�8�J�LWE5.lU���`l1j���2K����5�rLS6�̘�D���.w#�a����+X��s)3E��?A�G�R�_� �O��ɹ U�� supervision into a monitoring function, at its best. The development of supervision is Observation which can be made in two types either global or specific. hear of counselling supervision, clinical supervision, training supervision, consultancy, professional supervision, peer, group and individual supervision and so forth. The paper further discusses techniques and challenges of supervision as well as principals’ supervisory roles for quality education. There are various types of eva luation in education, according to the r elative emphasize they have on these various functions. <]>> Simplified Stages of Teacher Development Thought Concern Stage Egocentric Self adequacy Classroom II Other students and teachers Models of Supervision The various approaches to super vision can be grouped in three some what simplified models, categorized as nondirective, collaborative, and Types of Supervision: Autocratic, Laissez-faire, Democratic and Bureaucratic Supervision Learning is best seen as part of a cycle of activities, rather than as a one-off event • 2. Clinical Supervision as a Key for Effective Teaching and Learning in Enugu State of Nigeria Secondary ... of the appropriate instructional expectations of education system. What is Clinical Supervision in relation to Education? Several instances of effective models of supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and other non-school related constraints. 19 0 obj<> endobj Both, educational supervision and administration are part of the educational system and they complement each other. Supervision in counselling is an important part of working to professional standards. Insomesettings,suchasresidentialcare,shiftworkingcreateschallengesforstaff supervisionandamodelofshared supervisionmaybeusedwheretwoormore managerssharethesupervisionofindividualstaff. societal demand for teacher effectiveness in education and the need for thorough supervision in schools, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools. find differences, thus: the words “supervision” and “inspection” are often used to mean the same but they are two different concepts in terms of job content and scope. Directed/Clinical Supervision . N� �Vn�Vn�Nnҷ�M��M��M��ͳj�MةM٩My�6��Ԧ�Ԧ|��ĝڔ�fJ�sj�M[��[�I/�M�v��[� [�{��[�)[���oǏ��������Hp�N� ���+"��"ql�k$�a�EMR�ڊK�"i����o1C*jƠ'�Gx��bQÈ��X�eю� ��8��&%x���"��Ee�^�2>x�ؠqz�Q���Q|E���1�&�r�LS��!g�b�;P��Jw��1B��E�?�]S��P���=�r$S�u�Ť�+ޡH+�=�C�K�q�ks�Է�W��_q������� �HA� ;. Educational Supervision is a branch of Educational Management. Aligning the components of an accountability system 10 6. x�b```f``��l�x�(��6������p�P�)�D-�)�jP�� ��T�00�i.�xX?�� The Pennsylvania Department of Education currently (2008) covers the assessment fee of $2500. The use of student assessment data 12 7. NyAp⋊��W��W��w��v�ӾCr�#��{�I�!9u/9y/9���%'�$'?��������0IN���V�I}+9u'9���|�AQ�^ac�� 9�>�$s!�ȧf�F~�%+v5�h��YiK��!�oZ*��XS��-ï�Qf�k4ݓP�b i�h�J�˦h����Bz&ϐv�v#�*Y[��we��4��̾�ȿQ�+�dm{9�RO&� ?~� t1? various elements of education supervision and school inspection abound, but very little are grounded in a sound and tight t heoretical perspective. ‘Supervision is a process which aims to support, assure and develop the knowledge, skills and values of the person being supervised (supervisee), 10Throughout the learning resource supervision is referred to, and understood, as a process not an event. +� M�t�z�St�0b���pu������Ń���B���"`�����̜�1��aX���bƃ��� 11Kettle, M (2015) Achieving Effective Supervision, Insight 30. Selected Bibliography 51. iv ;t(�PС�S��١G��������������������nn�=(���|E�2_���W�+���|E��Eʵt^��E�]��(:Qv��Dى�e'�N��(:1vb���o�7���������o�7���������o�_bn��1~�͜a�*'c�J�XwϹ� ��Ӱ���y}Ǹ��ce����m�N��\��_�W� �o= Edited by the Center for Credentialing & Education Course Introduction The general purpose of this course is to learn about the basic processes of clinical supervision. 40 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<8709F21A23EA9645A07D34AC63C152AE>]/Index[26 30]/Info 25 0 R/Length 77/Prev 103680/Root 27 0 R/Size 56/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Scope of Supervision The scope of educational supervision extends to all the areas of educational activity with the larger purpose of improving the product of education through the upgrading of the quality of instruction and other school practices. Clinical supervision of teachers is a term used to describe the process of coaching inexperienced teachers. 2) Preventive type. VI. 55 0 obj <>stream Scientific Supervision 37 Nondirective Supervision 40 Multi-faceted Supervision 43 Person-to-Person Supervision 46. Figure 1. Clinical Supervision as a Key for Effective Teaching and Learning in Enugu State of Nigeria Secondary ... of the appropriate instructional expectations of education system. Group Versus Individual Supervision 34. endstream endobj 20 0 obj<> endobj 22 0 obj<> endobj 23 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 24 0 obj<> endobj 25 0 obj<> endobj 26 0 obj<> endobj 27 0 obj<> endobj 28 0 obj<> endobj 29 0 obj<>stream The National Policy on Education (NPE) has highlighted in precise terms the objectives of educational supervision, which is “:to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services” (1981). endstream endobj 30 0 obj <>stream %%EOF Supervision Defined n“Supervision is instructional leadership that relates perspectives to behavior, clarifies purposes, contributes to and supports organizational actions, coordinates interactions, provides for maintenance and improvement of the instructional … First, there is the The only downside to this type of supervision is it takes the longest. These schools have had significant increases in student achievement levels as reported by State standardized tests. Education has been responsible for the assessment, evaluation and supervision of educational system in Ghana, and considering the decentralization policy, the function of the external supervision was assigned to the District, Municipal and/or Metropolitan Education Types of Educational Supervision and Inspection. theoretical concepts, supervision in therapy began to develop its own unique identity. Types of supervision: Supervision is classified in to five types. endstream endobj 32 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj 34 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]>>/Subtype/Form>>stream Social workers in the U.S. were introducing supervision as a “supportive and reflective space” (arroll, 2007, p. 34) and other types of welfare workers were picking up these ideas at, or around the same time. IV Education policy series 1 Accountability in education V 1. Let us see major types of evaluation in education, now. 0000000751 00000 n Essentially, clinical supervision in education involves a teacher receiving information from a colleague who has observed the teacher’s performance and who serves as both a mirror and a sounding board to enable the teacher critically examine and possibly alter his … the practices and challenges of instructional supervision Curriculum experts, boards of education, school professional staff, and parents and students should all be part of the decision-making process concerning curriculum matters. (PDF) MODELS OF SUPERVISION IN EDUCATION | Tunde G Shodiya - Academia.edu Many scholars in the field of supervision have given different models of supervision, but there is no evidence to support that any one model of supervision is superior to other. Choice E includes all four groups and is the correct answer. The principals of schools were mandated amidst many other responsibilities to carry out instructional supervision in their schools. In educational supervision, supervisors may take on a variety of roles: Accountability; Monitoring; Clinical; Advisor; Critical Friend; Mentor; Accountability – In this type of supervision, the person doing the supervising takes a traditional role as an inspector. “Education is now conceived as a powerful social force for the The Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision test is intended to assess a candidate’s knowledge of the functions of an administrator or supervisor, including the background of information needed to implement these functions. The Preparation and Continuing Education. Supervision in higher education is an important element for growth, being an essential process for research students. There is often a requirement for exact accountability for all requirements. Many scholars in the field of supervision have given different models of supervision, but there is no evidence to support that any one model of supervision is superior to other. These are: Service activity: The main purpose of educational supervision is to help teachers do better job. The National Policy on Education (NPE) has highlighted in precise terms the objectives of educational supervision, which is “:to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services” (1981). While the clinical legal education literature emphasises the importance of effective supervision, there is a need to further deepen the shared understanding of what supervision practices support the achievement of particular learning objectives. 1. %PDF-1.4 %���� More funds are being committed to education both by the Governments and Private Citizens. endstream endobj 33 0 obj <>stream ��� �,��^G#�fD>�s�C�5"��b^Y�d 씒+_LCr�V���Vkt �� s��e���#��@䖾��If$Bt�>��/?���ɠ\���t�i��K���>0�����﫿Q�$:%g�럳�ׁ�}2+I��:�z#y��ɮY���k$���/!���`(%�{��B��T?o1ԍ� ��f~Za1�^YԝN�yx�č",k�r�$��y>���P�E�m3��֢�ҼJ?���U�]�K�'��$Y���~��8���%絟��v1��$���˻�wT�����.��n�7Ei�x�W!�|���������y�.�|��˗U��?Y>#q3��G����:�h�.o� TYPES OF SUPERVISION Six tenets of bureaucratic supervision In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Max Weber developed formal definitions and described six tenets that define bureaucratic supervision : 1.Astrict hierarchy that is formalized by the leadership and strictly adhered to. ]��b����q�i����"��w8=�8�Y�W�ȁf8}ކ3�aK�� tx��g�^삠+v��!�a�{Bhk� ��5Y�liFe�̓T���?����}YV�-ަ��x��B����m̒�N��(�}H)&�,�#� ��o0 Selected Bibliography 51. iv H��Wˎ����WԱ�8���8���V�8dI�6E�IJ����~�#3��Z�k�fDRbV>"##���'�����O_�{����� �\E�+Wy���0ϢX��O�:�߾��nOZ�_�l�i��]FQ Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers in education. Scientific Supervision 37 Nondirective Supervision 40 Multi-faceted Supervision 43 Person-to-Person Supervision 46. 0 Clinical supervision is a method of supervision whereby the supervisor is involved with the teacher in a close, “helping, relationship”. School Supervision: Concepts & Theories 1. 5 types of instructional supervision provides a comprehensive and comprehensive pathway for students to see progress after the end of each module. Supervision Defined n“Supervision is instructional leadership that relates perspectives to behavior, clarifies purposes, contributes to and supports organizational actions, coordinates interactions, provides for maintenance and improvement of the instructional … 0000002542 00000 n Essentially, clinical supervision in education ... What type of data will be recorded (e.g., teacher’s questions, students’ education. endstream endobj startxref In order to evaluate the differences between them, it is necessary to clear up what they are. 0000000016 00000 n 1. However, despite the efforts of several stakeholders in education to manage and There are various definitions of educational supervision. It is seen as an answer of so many questions and solution to a myriad of problems. Standards for instructional Supervision will serve as a guide to the entire developmental process of supervision, the instructional leaders and the teacher who will get the support. To this end, … 0 ADVERTISEMENTS: “Supervision is a creative and dynamic process giving friendly guidance and direction to teachers and pupils for improving themselves and the teaching-learning situation for the accomplishment of the desired goals of education.” –R.P. H�\��J�@���{��6��*�Biz�X}�4�ր݄mzѷ��䈂�d��sf��N��n��]���f��;t�Mz�/�Q��c�y�ڮ���os��,7��z����>�*����yLWw�j���f�Kj5u��n>ֻ[��.��'�����ҵz�D���>��'�ݶ��n�ޙ�7��:�+��9�4}��n4��Y5�g�'{������"P�?4�uʪ���-�k��H~4^�'�Ÿ �y����f���������������ӏ��!o�K�,��d�9KO���\�yV����jjZa� ^X���V&�=�L��B��B��� 0000001580 00000 n The supervisor, using the clinical supervision approach, is able to supply data to the teacher candidate in a fair and equitable manner. �Ңٝ�~�c�;s�.,�Z��2P��t��[���e@�mB�u�ޞ$�u�{H��� ��L)�ܡ,Ÿ��x����� �w�3 These schools have had significant increases in student achievement levels as reported by State standardized tests. Several instances of effective models of supervision and professional development were discovered, however, despite bureaucratic and other non-school related constraints. 36. educational supervision, purpose and principles of educational supervision. •Introduction •Definition of educational Supervision •Nature of Educational Supervision •Types of Educational Supervision •Description of Types •Description Of Types •Conclusion •References Content List 3. 0000001982 00000 n First, there is the The 1970s saw a further shift away from a counselling conceptualisation of supervision to one that focused more on supervision as ‘an educational process’ with social roles models that focused on practice (Carroll, 2007: 34). Supervision usually refers to watching over those in the administration or any type of worker, administration is what runs a school/business but also looks up to a supervisor to be regulated. 5) Democratic type. 0000001081 00000 n Supervision could be defined as a day-to-day guidance of all education operations, coordination of the detailed work and cultivation of good working relationship among all the people involved in the teaching-learning process.. In this research project, an attempt was made by the researcher to find out the role of supervision in the development of primary education in some selected schools within sokoto metropolis. educational supervision as; “all those services whose main function is to control and evaluate, and/or advice and support school heads and teachers”. ���5M�E֚KUDQ+�ˆ%��N�!�Ed�"duMo*��]�G���4*ZY�T�E�He���ǜ���� ���Xw��x�[E�*HC���B�}�` ��D����p.�|$'���,SV`�]����Y��� @N�ע��jY�A�[�6wV�@px��!9^Xƒ��Q ? Introduction Education is gaining more prominence in the affair more than ever before. EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION • 1. 5. Supervision in counselling is an important part of working to professional standards. %%EOF Information about the context of ��IT݀D?���r�F�9A,t;)�l%�n����@���&��d�6,'���9� �nwY������H�?�?��v3������Ɵ1�� ,�h+l�t�Oh����1p��~j��ld6^1v5k�J7�(��2`��Y[i��B�f��h�u{�h��x�Ǜ("�\ ��L�2��4si�ѷIv��(Q���wv�H"�+�ygvyw۽���[S�S�&G�g��}�}v�}�\ݥ �Y h��Vmo"7�+#�˝N��ߤp��ZH�Mr�!>���Ua�����w�9�ݩR������glK$fH�R����,H ���ri��8� �P-ŀ9m@q��hP{��n��!���/}���l�/g?q�-���!���C��ǯ�ߓ.�S CLINICAL SUPERVISION: AN OVERVIEW The purpose of clinical supervision is to create a learning climate in which the teacher candidate can attain the skills of teaching. This can be achieved by the supervisor clearly defining goals for the teachers and facilitating opportunities for the teachers to … This type of supervision is done with an experience setting and is the most common. Values and aspirations 3 3. Education has been responsible for the assessment, evaluation and supervision of educational system in Ghana, and considering the decentralization policy, the function of the external supervision was assigned to the District, Municipal and/or Metropolitan Education Directorates. The Role of Supervision in the Development of Primary Education (A Case Study of Some Selected Primary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis) ABSTRACT. xref �\�̴�3�7GaX����� �fbk� ��� supervision in asossa zone primary schools by: berhane assefa ekyaw jimma university institute of education and professional development studies department of educational planning and management may, 2014 jimma, ethiopia . There are at least three problems with directive supervision. If qualitative education is a thing seriously desired in schools so that standard of education in our schools can be highly improved, school supervision must therefore be accorded high priority. 1) Corrective type: In this type of supervision, the supervisor tries to find … The Preparation and Continuing Education. Part Three Modes of Personalizing Supervision. Few models in the entire field of education—let alone in the specific domain of educational supervision—have been as widely deployed, as widely disparaged, or as widely misunderstood. endstream endobj 27 0 obj <>>> endobj 28 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 29 0 obj <>stream supervision into a monitoring function, at its best. �5�D7Rxr���uq�å���w���d��[��H��d�ğ��oL�ݧ���o~!b�rĶw����_�n�N��_n����.�`:���/��N�?�pw�������o������Ӆa)! trailer NBCSD Differentiated Supervision and Evaluation, 2008 Types of Differentiated Supervision. {Q�C^��y����3���$�4}��*y��$z��(�j��b H)��PPZ;�E�M��[����>eCe`6PO9�V���O���T�N�/��/ʼ)��� 21 0 obj<>stream What is Supervision in Education? Educational supervision is a term used to identify the work duties of administrative workers in education. This last Education inspection was introduced in to the education system in Ethiopia about 35 years after the introduction of modern (western) type of education in the country around 1934 E.C. H��W�n�|���G����>^%�6`{ ��0b�:l�Ԓ��~GDV� �+���:��~sy����?��?����ח�|p�����/94WjoKn��w_����ׯ�w��t���f�����ͧ���^��������w��W���#�����2���p�,�.����"%>����g8�����/~yw{����[8x�_��r�9/��e[Yz��������]���w�ᣋ12���G�Ӻ��G��}X�Ϯ��.ݮ��>Z[V�O� ��Ks1��q�!_��K���R�#�+��l]�p�֥z�z�Xw�Q]Ki���d The Pennsylvania Department of Education currently (2008) covers the assessment fee of $2500. IRISS, www.iriss.org.uk h�bbd``b`Z$�A� ��bi�$��� ��b-I� - a3�5���VY���|0 s` Supervisees are more likely to learn when they themselves perceive a gap between what they currently know and what they need … Our Best Practices research revealed a genuine interest among both in-house and external supervisors ��ĩ��v���"B��^�(�(���#�q`ܵP�W�6�K!ֲh��ߠ�Lϭ�8Q>L�7���' �h��C�. Verma. Although it is commonly understood that administration encompasses supervision, they have different purposes. 36. NBCSD Differentiated Supervision and Evaluation, 2008 Types of Differentiated Supervision. This chapter is a reflective self-study of my relationship with my supervisor (and friend) who has mentored me through my PhD and now in my early-career phase as an academic in a tenured position. 0000000960 00000 n Abstract. One benefit to supervised independent fieldwork is you often can find a work placement that offers supervision, so you can get paid for restricted hours. The Education System 14 13% VI V IV III II I About This Test The Praxis Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (ELAS) assessment measures whether entry-level education leaders have the standards-relevant knowledge believed necessary for competent professional practice. Andone-to-one supervisionis the most common form of supervision for professionallyqualifiedworkers. Models of supervision 1-Directive supervision In Directive supervision the role of the supervisor is to direct and inform the teacher, model teaching behaviours, and evaluate the teacher’s mastery of defined behaviors. In addi-tion, supervision may mean different things in different contexts, all of which may have a bearing on where emphasis is placed and how supervision is effected. Part Three Modes of Personalizing Supervision. SUPERVISION MODELS by Kendra L. Smith, Ph.D., LPC, ACS September 2009 Clinical supervision for mental health professionals started out much like “apprenticeships” in other fields. Educational supervisors make sure the educational institution operates efficiently and within the legal requirements and rules. 11Kettle, M (2015) Achieving Effective Supervision, Insight 30. By 1980, one study found that about 90 percent of school administrators used some type of clinical supervisory model (Bruce & Hoehn, 1980). The teacher candidate and Observation which can be made in two types either global or specific. endstream endobj 31 0 obj <>stream ��t�:�'�7��G�$�P��V#܈ p�0eK��'��U�l��3�UQ�"|M�)�h6��㘨�����؃1�����U�g�1��њ�}�����@�y��%��5��Yc�X�,, s�|@lz�� J�y�N��4Nt�;�=�ES�] Ue����,Pt-L��@����(�mЁ���y��}��R�/�S7� ڎ�F ���,�qL��d�ا4�a���J>pi4Y��$�wc"�xdW��\�:�l3q�T$gl�6~p�j˜�M3�� v Hꢵo���.Щ�H��c�tV042튰M.��΢O��ٰ���،;�4�D.�l�8�R"xuGS��w�b�֤BO�(�"�/�(�k[��C38��V�Ё�����Ľ��T;���2�s�ɡ���-.����u6kS���;Ƀ,�k�Z�F'�]T~m0$܋��)�烍UѠPH�G�aC?Q`�����t��=��"�"��r�,�/ܢ}L�$~���J��)�Iw�=jgP���l �a�@��}Nu�Ĭ�u��]��l�\6 J�� �-��!�G#�ϼm41s9j��s�(\T{�&��f�D�B�q#*��'o��P�-Kْ��}9�`�,Մ�I�G���=3�W��ʰ�S��A����U�9��t��)��T�o N� In global the supervisor records all 0000000556 00000 n In a time of budgetary constraints, the Air Force recognizes the importance of effective supervision in tapping our great human potential. Y��[����� #�=��9?�(����� �B/����'�2 5/��P!4��2�Ē�:�9�M h�{���-�2�&p�T���,>���P&wg@��pȠq��|�}/���@a�D@�!� 80��("�ȘU3aU;�%/ ��3A)%5�C!�a��짛�Җ0�A��Q�"Α%Hɐm6 ��YCuy �h�:�?X'�z��[Ժi'�%�G ��~����,ה �[k��[&3!�d� �����]��f-�X�NCP����0Dv��:��Z���[xHGQO+P�V�H+b5�6^�@Ex�B�T6 Types of accountability system 1 2. to instructional supervision. The goals of schooling 5 4. Through inspection The standards comprehensively cover both the culture and the process of supervision in the context of Philippine Education. Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision (0410) 00321-47721 • PDF65 Answers 1. Effective supervision which entails management of the teaching and learning process is sine-qua-non to improved student learning and achievement of educational goals. Bhatnagar & I.B. 0000000831 00000 n H�\��j� ��>�w�ٜ%P�r����NR�eby��6l�*����s���)d�o݀�@�q�;��@�ڂ. H�\�͊�@��>E-��Qoݛ��I��&3`��:*�,��S������Xu��HU�=�];������0�s�5c�����.m�d�k�z�|���k5$i�||ܦp=t�>)K���/o��pO��?��$�16al��{��=>��x��p ��n�vM8Ǡo�����^M|�N��8�߈ߏ!�|~�(S�M� Uƪ���\�k�ʷx���5�����N����2���"�"/�K���o�[�����{�9.Z�,�Yd���spA.�B�'{��ldӳ�gA��ņ���_�t+�&��}>B���G�#��}>B���G�#��� Many in the field have called for various models that can bridge the 19 13 of Supervisors 32. The concept of supervision is based on the fact of improvement of instruction is a cooperative project. Effective Instructional Supervision involves raising student achievement and creating valuable educational opportunities for students. H��@����7�C�9{��V Supervision is designed to achieve improvement in instruction, resolution of school constraints, maintenance of … 2. The commissions recommended that instructional supervision be undertaken in the schools by trained qualified and experienced personnel. startxref There are various definitions of educational supervision. supervision occupies a unique place in the entire education system. 4) Autocratic type. Directed/Clinical Supervision . Many in … 3) Creative type. That is, a student/apprentice with minimal skill/knowledge would learn the … 0000005635 00000 n In global the supervisor records all The main components of accountability systems 7 5. There are at least three problems with directive supervision. No matter which discipline or what form of clinical supervision one practices, psychoanalytic �i�ȣϨAp>�ӿ/7�a gt?ㇵP�ե�@���sN_��/�#���r�y��)�JH�����j��0�����]�{���M�p�w��e�Gm����j�x}kNV;1\��~�5,��xʑv���7�-�����uNDaw=��@HrC���ɶ�/ i��Ք׼���\��+�>�j�ʏ��x">Y����Q�g}SԻf�] *�ϸ*��:������~��t�dr1��� 0000002221 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� education has increasingly become crucial in strategic improvement plans of developing countries According to Kochhar (2005) View’s that supervision includes those activities which are primarily and directly concerned with studying and improving the conditions … z(쉠'�=�y`-�� �XK@-���z���}��f�F�3C�%%�id����tQ�z�g*�� �Z�� 26 0 obj <> endobj [mD��$� Meaning of Educational Supervision: The features of the modern educational supervision presented here are accepted widely in the U.S.A, Europe, England and other countries of the world. Standards for instructional Supervision will serve as a guide to the entire developmental process of supervision, the instructional leaders and the teacher who will get the support. N[�����yVo��,8i+8y+8e+8m+8�Y��;�i�I��[�)�I�I[�I�N�N� 0000002466 00000 n This last Completion of this course allows learners to become better consumers of supervision, more effective supervisors, and better able to evaluate involvement in the supervisory role. Models of supervision 1-Directive supervision In Directive supervision the role of the supervisor is to direct and inform the teacher, model teaching behaviours, and evaluate the teacher’s mastery of defined behaviors. They are follows: 1) Corrective type. �;�&_֚�p�Q�k��] ��QEv 0000005669 00000 n �p7��w}��إ�jIɢ���*�?��\����-�L� e ­þi��&G h�b```"��� A���Lf_ �3*�s���������8��i �d20�3�g�Ϙ����7�-�S��6��&L``�8�d�dV���8���? 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